Ice formation in Sea of ​​Azov

Ice in Sea of Azov

In the area of Sea of Azov occurrence of moderate winters is 42 % , soft - 48%, severe - 10%. The gradual rise of temperature change was manifested in harsh winters. Number of mild winters has increased markedly. Impermanence ice conditions depending on the severity of winters is the main feature of the ice regime of Sea of Azov.

Ice formation in Sea of Azov occurs annually. The freeze lasts for 2-5 months. Ice formation, usually begins in Taganrog Bay in late November. In the north, north-east of the sea ice appearance date range varies from mid-October to mid-January, depending on the severity of the winters.

Home ice formation in the coastal settlements in the west and east of the Azov Sea is in December. Date range of the first ice formation in these areas is 3.5 months. Earliest ice formation is observed at the beginning of November, and the latest - in mid-February.

In the southern parts of the sea ice appears much later, due to the close proximity of Black Sea, from where the strait penetrate warmer waters. The appearance of the initial species of ice on average noted in the first half of January. The earliest appearance of the initial types of ice in the southern part of the sea is possible at the end of November at the latest, celebrated in early March. In some soft and mild winters in the southern part of Sea of Azov ice formation is not observed.

The final purification of the sea ice usually occurs in March. Cleansing the sea begins with the southeastern areas. Then cleared the southern and south- western part, where under the influence of north- easterly winds are carried ice from other areas of the sea. In mild winters, the final cleansing in these areas is possible in the second half of January. In severe winters ice cleansing takes place in late April - early May.

Last ice released Taganrog Bay in the delta region of Don river. This zone is characterized by a harsh climate. Here in milder winters cleansing observed at the end of February. The latest Bay cleansing occurs in late April.

Duration of ice season depends on the area of the sea. In the northern part of Taganrog and Don delta average ice period is 122 days. In the southern regions of the Azov Sea - 61 days. Thickest ice cover usually reaches in the first half of February. In Taganrog Bay formed the most powerful little fresh ice, According to the observations of its maximum thickness is 42 cm in the southern part of the Sea of Azov average maximum ice thickness of 21-26 cm should be noted that in severe winters ice thickness can reach 80 cm in the Taganrog Bay and 44 cm in the southern sea areas (Kerch).

Dates of onset of ice formation in Sea of ​​Azov
Taganrog Berdyansk Genichesk Yeisk Akhtarsk Kerch Temryuk Mysovoe
The first ice formation 26.11 17.12 10.12 11.12 04.12 07.01 28.12 11.01
The first formation of fast ice 11.12 30.12 13.12 16.12 21.12 10.01 31.12 13.01
Starting of stable ice formation 10.12 26.12 27.12 26.12 23.12 12.01 02.01 15.01
The first complete freezing 18.12 05.01 06.01 24.12 27.12 17.01 06.01 23.01
Beginning of stable fast ice formation 22.12 03.01 01.01 01.01 28.12 20.01 31.12 19.01
Final freezing 28.12 16.01 05.01 06.01 04.01 29.01 10.01 08.02
Beginning of the ice breaking / first ice breakup movements - - 13.03 03.03 03.03 - - -
Final destruction of the fast ice 18.03 08.03 13.03 14.03 07.03 25.02 28.02 04.03
Final purification of ice 28.03 18.03 26.03 20.03 16.03 09.03 04.03 24.03
Sea of Azov ice regime characteristics
Таганрог Berdyansk Genichesk Yeisk Akhtarsk Kerch Temryuk Mysovoe
Number of cleanings of ice per winter 2 4 3 4 4 6 3 3
Duration of ice season (days) 122 91 106 100 101 61 67 72
Maximum ice thickness (sm) 42 30 29 37 27 21 26 24

Since the depth of Sea of Azov is low, and the heat content is negligible. Therefore, the instability of the ice regime, the main features of which are repeated opening and freezing due to changing weather conditions. During the ice season might repeated appearance and disappearance of the ice. Purifications by the sea during the winter average about 2 times in the north-east to the south 6.

Lately there has been a slight tendency to a later appearance of ice in the southern sea areas. Maximum timing offset for the area port of Kerch (trend reaches 13 days for 70 years). In Genichesk, Taganrog and Yeisk opposite trend, ice forms at an earlier date.

The final purification of the sea ice was celebrated before. Significant trend date for the final purification was 15-18 days for 70 years (with a maximum area for port Yeisk). Thus, over a period of years duration of the ice season in the Sea of Azov declined (except Genichesk district). Significant trend was 19-28 days for 70 years. Shortening of the ice season is most noticeable in areas of Port Kerch, Berdyansk and Yeisk.

So. The gradual increase in air temperature in the region manifested in changing winter severity. Number of mild winters has increased markedly, harsh winters became much smaller. Complete purification of the sea ice has been observed before - for 15-18 days in 70 years. At the same time reduced the duration of the ice season 19-28 days for 70 years, most notably in the areas of Kerch, Berdyansk and Yeisk.


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